Rippling of Graphene

Author :R.C. Thompson-Flagg, M.J.B. Moura, and M. Marder
Publication :Europhysics Letters
Number :vol 85
Pages :46002
Year :2009

We show that ripples observed in free-standing graphene sheets can be explained as
a consequence of adsorbed OH molecules sitting on random sites. The adsorbates cause the bonds
between carbon atoms to lengthen slightly. Static buckles then result from a mechanism like the
one that leads to buckling of leaves. Buckles caused by roughly 20% coverage of adsorbates are
consistent with experimental observations.